An official website of the United States government

Official websites use .gov

A .gov website belongs to an official government organization in the United States.

Secure .gov websites use HTTPS

A lock ( ) or https:// means you’ve safely connected to the .gov website. Share sensitive information only on official, secure websites.

You are viewing ARCHIVED CONTENT released online from January 20, 2017 to January 20, 2021.

Content in this archive site is NOT UPDATED, and links may not function.

For current information, go to

A woman’s hands counting coins. (Riya Kumari; 2018)

3Ps: Prosecution, Protection, and Prevention

The “3P” paradigm—prosecution, protection, and prevention—continues to serve as the fundamental framework used around the world to combat human trafficking. The TIP Office employs a range of diplomatic and programmatic tools to advance the 3P paradigm worldwide. In addition, a fourth “P”—for partnership—serves as a complementary means to achieve progress across the 3Ps and enlist all segments of society in the fight against modern slavery. Learn more about the 3Ps»

U.S. Government Response

Combating human trafficking requires a comprehensive, multidisciplinary effort. Within government, this means the participation and coordination among agencies with a range of responsibilities that include criminal enforcement, labor enforcement, victim outreach and services, public awareness, education, trade policy, international development and programs, customs and immigration, intelligence, and diplomacy. Coordinated federal efforts that incorporate state, local, and tribal entities, the private sector, civil society, survivors, religious communities, and academia are essential to an integrated response to human trafficking that leverages resources and amplifies results. In the United States, federal agencies work to ensure a whole-of-government approach to address all aspects of human trafficking. Learn more about the U.S. Government Response»


Research is an integral vehicle for enhancing the U.S. government’s understanding of the multifaceted nature of human trafficking and guiding its anti-trafficking policies and programs. The TIP Office supports evidence-based research that identifies effective strategies for combating modern slavery. Learn more about Research»

International and Domestic Law

Within the United States, the Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000, as amended, provides the tools to combat trafficking in persons both worldwide and domestically. The Act authorized the establishment of the State Department’s TIP Office and the President’s Interagency Task Force to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons to assist in the coordination of U.S. government anti-trafficking efforts.  Internationally, several conventions, in particular the United Nations Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children, supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime (Palermo Protocol), set out international standards for combating trafficking in persons. Learn more about International and Domestic Law»

Leahy Vetting and Awards Requirements

Funds provided under foreign assistance awards are subject to Section 620M of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as amended, a provision titled “Limitation on Assistance to Security Forces” (the “Leahy Amendment”). Subsection (a) of that provision states: “(a) In General.—No assistance shall be furnished under this Act [the Foreign Assistance Act] or the Arms Export Control Act to any unit of the security forces of a foreign country if the Secretary of State has credible information that such unit has committed a gross violations of human rights.” Accordingly, none of the funds provided by the TIP Office may be used to provide training or other assistance to any unit or member of the security forces of a foreign country if the Department of State has credible information that such unit or individual has committed a gross violation of human rights. The Department of State implements the Leahy Amendment requirement by vetting units or individuals proposed for training or other assistance to check for credible information of a gross violation of human rights by such units or individuals. To facilitate Department of State vetting, all award recipients are encouraged to watch the Leahy Tutorial video for TIP Office grantees.

U.S. Department of State

The Lessons of 1989: Freedom and Our Future